Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
University of Oregon
UO Libraries

WR 123: Written Reasoning in the Context of Research

Resources for all sections of Writing 123 College Composition III courses at the University of Oregon

Step 5 - Organize, Write & Cite

Green pencil icon from Noun ProjectOrganizing your research can help make the writing and citing process easier. Why do we cite? Several reasons! 

  1. It makes us look good. Seriously, it's the ethical and responsible thing to do when using ideas or quotations from others.
  2. It helps us point our readers to our sources where they can more deeply engage with the scholarly conversation.
  3. It helps us to learn how to communicate formally within our discipline/major.

Use tips from this page to guide you in this step.

Avoiding Plagiarism: What Do I Need to Cite? (Video Tutorial)

Check out this video from Kevin deLaplante to learn about plagiarism and borrowing both quotes and ideas (paraphrasing). 

Organizing Your Research - Avoiding Plagiarism

Avoiding plagiarism means ensuring you give proper credit to those whose ideas you are borrowing in your own work through citation. One great way to track where you get your ideas is to take good notes during your research process.

The best way to organize your research is to find a way that works for you! Here are some suggestions:

A table showing several options for organizing research

Notecards

Notecards icon from Noun Project

Spreadsheet

Noun project icon of spreadsheet

Research Journal

composition book icon from Noun Project

Reference/Citation Manager 

Quotation icon from Noun Project

ZoteroMendeleyEndNote, etc.

Whatever approach you choose, consider highlighting useful search words, subject headings, and keeping track of where you found your information sources in case you or another researcher needs to go back to verify the information you cite. 

Major Citation Styles - Official and Credible Guidance

Official Style Manuals

Humanities fields
Social Sciences fields
Humanities & Social Sciences fields
Some Sciences fields

Online Style Resources

UO Research Guide

Citing and Attributing Images in Presentations, etc.

A photo of someone holding a sign that says "Give Thanks".Photo by Simon Maage on Unsplash

Attribution statements give credit to the original creator(s) whenever you reuse or re-purpose their content. If someone reused your creative works would you want them to give you attribution?

What's the standard we use to give attribution?
As recommended by Creative Commons, this is an ideal attribution:

Cupcakes on a glass platter on a green table

“Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Because:
  1. What is the title? “Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco”
  2. Who is the creator/author? “tvol” – linked to their profile page
  3. What's the source? “Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” – linked to original Flickr page
  4. What license is used?? “CC BY 2.0” – linked to license deed

Citations vs. Attribution

The following table summarizes the differences between citations and attributions.

What's the difference between attribution and a citation?

Citation

Attribution

Academic and legal purposes (plagiarism and copyright infringement).

Legal purposes (e.g., rules of Creative Commons licenses).

The rights of the copy (meaning copyright) are NOT shared with the general public by the copyright holder.

Copyright IS shared with the general public by the copyright holder by marking the work with an open-copyright license.

Protects an author who wants to refer to a restricted work by another author.

Author of an open work has given advanced permissions to use their work.

Used to quote or paraphrase a limited portion of a restricted work.

Used to quote (or paraphrase) all or a portion of an openly licensed work.

Can paraphrase, but cannot change work without permission.

Author has give advanced permission to change work.

Many citation styles are available: APA, Chicago, MLA.

Attribution statement styles are still emerging, but there are some defined best practices.

A reference list of cited resources are typically placed at the end of the book.

Attribution statements are found on the same page as the resource.

Step 5: Pause to Reflect on Your Process

Process icon from Noun ProjectFirst of all, congratulations on making it this far! You may still have some loose ends to tie up, and that is OK. Take a moment to think back through your research process. Did you learn any helpful tips along the way? Are there new strategies that you can use for future projects or papers?

Do you still need more information? You can go back to previous steps at any time to revisit your research question or look for more or different sources of information. If you think you missed something, please feel free to reach out to a Subject Librarian:

University of Oregon Libraries
1501 Kincaid Street Eugene, OR
97403-1299
T: (541) 346-3053
F: (541) 346-3485
Make a Gift