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Getting Started with Research: An Overview of the Process

A guide through the library research process. Contact a librarian for more!

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Writing Support on Campus

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Photo Credit: UO Libraries

Note: Please check the websites below for availability of online or remote services:

Help with writing & editing your paper

Citation Management Tools

Citation managers help you collect, organize, cite, and share research. Click on the links below for guidance on using these tools.

Learning Opportunities

For help learning these tools, contact an expert listed on the tool's guide or sign up for one of our workshops:

Step 5 - Organize, Write & Cite

Green pencil icon from Noun ProjectOrganizing your research can help make the writing and citing process easier. Why do we cite? Several reasons! 

  1. It makes us look good. Seriously, it's the ethical and responsible thing to do when using ideas or quotations from others.
  2. It helps us point our readers to our sources where they can more deeply engage with the scholarly conversation.
  3. It helps us to learn how to communicate formally within our discipline/major.

Use tips from this page to guide you in this step.

Organizing Your Research - Avoiding Plagiarism

Avoiding plagiarism means ensuring you give proper credit to those whose ideas you are borrowing in your own work through citation. One great way to track where you get your ideas is to take good notes during your research process.

The best way to organize your research is to find a way that works for you! Here are some suggestions:

A table showing several options for organizing research

Notecards

Notecards icon from Noun Project

Spreadsheet

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Research Journal

composition book icon from Noun Project

Reference/Citation Manager 

Quotation icon from Noun Project

ZoteroMendeleyEndNote, etc.

Whatever approach you choose, consider highlighting useful search words, subject headings, and keeping track of where you found your information sources in case you or another researcher needs to go back to verify the information you cite. 

Major Citation Styles - Official and Credible Guidance

Official Style Manuals

There are many different types of academic and professional writing styles, but the four below represent some of the major guides. Click on the image of the book cover to be taken to the book or eBook in our library collection.

Major Style Guides by Fields that Use Them

Humanities

Social Sciences Humanities & Social Sciences Some Sciences

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MLA Handbook

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APA Manual

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Chicago Manual

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CSE Manual

Online Style Resources

Although these resources are not official, they are still credible and very useful! If one of these websites doesn't answer your question, check out the official style guide or contact a librarian for help!

UO Research Guide

This helpful guide from UO Libraries also provides some information on various citation styles.

Avoiding Plagiarism: What Do I Need to Cite? (Video Tutorial)

Check out this video from Kevin deLaplante to learn about plagiarism and borrowing both quotes and ideas (paraphrasing). 

Locating a Permalink for your Citations

Some citation styles require or suggest you include a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or web address in your bibliography. If you copy the URL from your browser bar, it may not work for other people, especially if your information source is in a library database. Instead, it is preferable to use the a permanent link or "permalink" in your citation so that others can find the resource, even if they are off campus or attend a different university. 

Library Subscription Databases
  • In EBSCO databases, look for the Permalink option under Tools in the right sidebar. Once you click on it, a new bar will appear in the middle of your screen with a link that you can copy and paste.

Screenshot of Ebsco Permalink

  • In ProQuest databases, click the Abstract/Details tab and look for the Document URL.

Screen shot of ProQuest permalink called 'Document URL'

LibrarySearch

The library's catalog and search tool has a Permalink feature:

Link to this Item in Library Search with Permalink option

Government Publications

Government websites and documents often have a permalink called a pURL (Pronounced like "pearl"). PURLs provide stable URLs to online Federal information.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A DOI is an alternative to a permalink. Your citation style may call for you to include just the DOI name (E.g: DOI: 10.5555/12345678), or the DOI URL (E.g.: "the full DOI" or https://doi.org/10.5555/12345678).

Learn more about persistent links for library resources.

Citation Management Workshops at UO Libraries

Noun Project Workshop iconUO Libraries offers Citation Management Workshops

Check for scheduled Citation Management Workshops at UO Libraries and sign up at the link below:

 

Read about all UO Libraries workshops:

If you prefer a one-on-one or small group consultation, contact a local expert on the Help pages of the citation management guide.

Step 5: Pause to Reflect on Your Process

Process icon from Noun ProjectFirst of all, congratulations on making it this far! You may still have some loose ends to tie up, and that is OK. Take a moment to think back through your research process. Did you learn any helpful tips along the way? Are there new strategies that you can use for future projects or papers?

Do you still need more information? You can go back to previous steps at any time to revisit your research question or look for more or different sources of information. If you think you missed something, please feel free to reach out to a Subject Librarian:

University of Oregon Libraries
1501 Kincaid Street Eugene, OR
97403-1299
T: (541) 346-3053
F: (541) 346-3485
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