Organizing your research can help make the writing and citing process easier. Use tips from this page to guide you in this step.
There are many different types of academic and professional writing styles. The four guidebooks below represent some of the major ones. Use these guides to learn how professional researchers and writers prepare their manuscripts for publication or sharing.
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Although these resources are not official, they are still credible and very useful! If one of these websites doesn't answer your question, check out the official style guide or contact a librarian for help!
This helpful guide from UO Libraries also provides some information on various citation styles.
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Some citation styles require or suggest you include a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or web address in your bibliography. If you copy the URL from your browser bar, it may not work for other people, especially if your information source is in a library database. Instead, it is preferable to use the a permanent link or "permalink" in your citation so that others can find the resource, even if they are off campus or attend a different university.
The library's catalog and search tool has a Permalink feature:
Government websites and documents often have a permalink called a pURL (Pronounced like "pearl"). PURLs provide stable URLs to online Federal information.
A DOI is an alternative to a permalink. Your citation style may call for you to include just the DOI name (E.g: DOI: 10.5555/12345678), or the DOI URL (E.g.: "the full DOI" or https://doi.org/10.5555/12345678).
Learn more about persistent links for library resources.
Check for scheduled Citation Management Workshops at UO Libraries and sign up at the link below:
Read about all UO Libraries workshops:
If you prefer a one-on-one or small group consultation, contact a local expert on the Help pages of the citation management guide.
First of all, congratulations on making it this far! You may still have some loose ends to tie up, and that is OK. Take a moment to think back through your research process. Did you learn any helpful tips along the way? Are there new strategies that you can use for future projects or papers?
Do you still need more information? You can go back to previous steps at any time to revisit your research question or look for more or different sources of information.
If you think you missed something, please feel free to reach out to a Subject Librarian: