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A short guide to get you started researching in the discipline of Education

APA Style

This guide is intended as a general introduction to citing sources using the bibliographic style established by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more complete details, see the most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (REF KNIGHT BF76.7 .P83 2020). Note that the manual includes essential information on manuscript preparation (e.g., margins, use of the passive voice), creating figures and tables, and ethics.

In October 2019, the American Psychological Association published its 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaced the 6th edition from 2009. To learn about the major changes in the APA guidelines, please consult this video tutorial

Additional Resources:

Online Resources

Sample References

Sample List of References

Citation Example Type of Citation

Ramírez, C. Z., & Verkuyten, M. (2011). Values, media framing, and political tolerance for extremist groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(6), 1583-1602. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00775.x

Journal article, two authors

Chafee, Z., Jr. (1962). Freedom of speech and press. In W. S. Dowden & T. N. Marsh (Eds.), The heritage of freedom: Essays on the rights of free men (pp. 140-156). Harper.

Chapter in an edited book

Dennis, E. E., & Vanden Heuvel, J. (1991). Emerging voices: East European media in transition: A report of the Gannett Foundation Task Force on Press Freedom in Eastern Europe (2nd ed.). Gannett Foundation Media Center.

Book

The Buffalo News (2003, June 13). FCC ruling to stifle debate, critics say.  p. C1.

Newspaper article, unsigned

Foerstel, H. N. (Ed.). (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: An encyclopedia. Greenwood Press.

Encyclopedia or dictionary

Freedom of the press: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, 92d Cong., 1 (1972).

Government hearing, whole hearing

Nguyen, T., Carnevale, J. J., Scholer, A. A., Miele, D. B., & Fujita, K. (2019). Metamotivational knowledge of the role of high-level and low-level construal in goal-relevant task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(5), 879-899. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000166

Journal article, 3-20 authors

Terregino, C. A., & Saks, N. S. (2010). Creative group performances to assess core competencies in a first-year patient-centered medicine course. Medical Education Online, 15, Article ID 4879. https://doi.org/10.3402/meo.v15i0.4879.

Article retrieved from database

Jeffords, S., & Rabinovitz, L. (Eds.). (1994). Seeing through the media: The Persian Gulf war. Rutgers University Press.

Edited book

Paretsky, S. (2003, June 2). The new censorship. New Statesman, 759, 18-20.

Magazine article

Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932).

ERIC Document

Sanders, B. (Producer/Director). (1987). Making the news fit [Motion picture]. Cinema Guild.

Film or video

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Katherine Donaldson
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