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How to Write a Literature Review

A self-guided tutorial that walks you through the process of conducting a Literature Review.

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Citation Management Tools

Citation managers help you collect, organize, cite, and share research. Click on the links below for guidance on using these tools.

Learning Opportunities

For help learning these tools, contact an expert listed on the tool's guide or sign up for one of our workshops:

Manage your references

Manage your references

 

As part of your lit review, you'll need to provide a list of references -- your professors want to know where you found your information. 

Your professor will also require that you use a specific format ("style") for citing your references, such as one of these: 

University Library provides an online guide to help you cite your sources correctly in multiple styles.

Why do I have to cite my sources?

Citations are important because:

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They help others find the information that you used.

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They help establish the credibility of your own research.

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They connect your work to the work of other scholars.

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It is one way that scholars enter into a dialogue with each other.

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It is a way to honor and acknowledge the work of others who have made your own research possible.

Citation Styles

Citation styles

In academic writing, there are many different formats for citing the sources you use in your research. Here are a few of the most common, and their related disciplines.

Accessibility note: Below is a chart with two columns for format and discipline.

Format Discipline
Modern Language Association
(MLA)
Humanities
American Psychological Association
(APA)
Social Science
Education
Business
Nursing
Council of Science Editors
(CSE)
Life Sciences
Physical Sciences
Mathematics
Chicago Manual of Style
(Chicago)
Humanities
Social Sciences

 

Note: Regardless of which format you use, you must include the same basic bibliographic information when citing a source.

Major Citation Styles - Official and Credible Guidance

Official Style Manuals

There are many different types of academic and professional writing styles. The four guidebooks below represent some of the major ones. Use these guides to learn how professional researchers and writers prepare their manuscripts for publication or sharing.

Major Style Guides by Fields that Use Them -- Click the image to be taken to the book or eBook in our library collection.

Humanities

Social Sciences Humanities & Social Sciences Some Sciences

MLA Handbook, 9th edition, book cover image

MLA Handbook

Cover Art

APA Manual

Cover Art

Chicago Manual

Cover Art

CSE Manual

Online Style Resources

Although these resources are not official, they are still credible and very useful! If one of these websites doesn't answer your question, check out the official style guide or contact a librarian for help!

UO Research Guide

This helpful guide from UO Libraries also provides some information on various citation styles.

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