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HC 301H Literary & Cinematic Noir

A guide to starting research for HC 301H Literary & Cinematic Noir with Prof. Ulrick Casimir, Spring 2022.

MLA Style

MLA Style

This guide provides a general introduction to citing sources in the style established by the Modern Language Association (MLA). The examples below are some of the most frequently cited sources. For additional sources and guidelines, see the latest edition of the handbook:

Quick Help:

      In-Text Citations

  • Provide the author's last name and the page number (Smith 10).
  • But... do not repeat the author's name in your citation if you have included it in your text.

      Works Cited: General Guidelines

  • Items are presented in alphabetical order by the first author's last name, or, if no author is listed, by the first element of the citation (generally the title).
  • Use hanging indents.
  • Identify the format of the item cited, e.g., Print or Web.
  • Always consult your professor/department/publisher for specific requirements.


Examples of Major Categories of Citation Type:

Citation Example Type of Citation
Bulliet, Richard W. "Twenty Years of Islamic Politics." Middle East Journal vol. 53, no. 2, 1999, pp. 189-200. Journal article (print)
McGurl, Mark. "The Institution Of Nothing: David Foster Wallace In The Program." Boundary 2: An International Journal Of Literature And Culture vol. 41, no. 3, 2014, pp. 27-54. Journal article (from an online database)
Silverstein, Ken. "Millions for Viagra, Pennies for Diseases of the Poor: Research Money Goes to Profitable Lifestyle Drugs." Nation, 19 July 1999, pp. 13-19. Magazine article (print)
Swift, Richard. "FCC Ruling to Stifle Debate, Critics Say." Buffalo News, 13 June 2003. Newspaper article (online)
Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era. U of California P, 1971. Book by a single author
Allison, Nancy, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines,  Rosen, 1999. Edited book
Burgers, Johannes Hendrikus, and Jennifer Mitchell. "Masochism And Marriage In The Rainbow And Ulysses."  Modernists at Odds: Reconsidering Joyce and Lawrence, Matthew Kocchis, Heather Lusty, Sebastian Knowles, editors, UP of Florida, 2015, pp. 175-195. Chapter in an edited book
Allen, Anita L. "Privacy in Health Care." Encyclopedia of Bioethics, Stephen G. Post, editor, 3rd ed, vol. 4, Macmillan-Thomson, 2004. Encyclopedia article, signed (print)
"Bhutan." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia article, unsigned (online)
Hollmichel, Stefanie So Many Books. 2003-13, Webpage
Tutton, Mark. "Designers Developing Virtual-Reality 'Cocoon'." Cable News Network, 11 Sept. 2007. Article retrieved from website
"Richard Swift." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 28 April 2006. Swift. A page on a website
It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra, performances by James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946. RKO, 2001. DVD
Vice Presidential Candidate Gov. Sarah Palin (AK) Full Speech at the RNC. C-Span, 3 Sept. 2008. Online video
United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. GPO, 2000. Government publication (print)
Harlow, Caroline Wolf. Hate Crime Reported by Victims and Police. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.  U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2005. Government publication (online)