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Text Descriptions of Images in Guides

This guide contains a long text description of images used in guides for web accessibility.

Reference Guide for Journal Articles (APA 7th)

7th Edition: Reference Guide for Journal Articles,Books, and Edited Book Chapters


Journal Article

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the Periodical, volume(issue), #–#.


Guidance for author names

Invert names so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and the initials. Leave a space between initials. Retain the order of authors’ names.

Guidance for year of publication

Place the year in parentheses. End with a period.

Guidance for Title of article

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. For a two-part title, capitalize the first word of the second part of the title. Also capitalize proper nouns. Do not italicize. End with a period.

Guidance for periodical (journal) name

Capitalize all major words in the periodical name. Follow with a comma. Italicize the periodical name (but not the comma after).

Guidance for volume and issue numbers

Italicize the volume number. Do not put a space between the volume number and the parentheses around the issue number. Do not italicize the issue number or parentheses. Follow the parentheses with a comma. No issue number? That’s okay. Follow the volume number with a comma.

Guidance for page numbers

Include the article page range. Use an en dash; do not put spaces around the en dash. End with a period.

Guidance for Digital Object Identifier

Does the article have a DOI? Include a DOI for all works that have one. Do not put a period after the DOI.

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