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HIST 248: Latinos in the Americas (Weise)

Step 5 - Organize, Write & Cite

Green pencil icon from Noun ProjectOrganizing your research can help make the writing and citing process easier. Use tips from this page to guide you in this step.

Why do we cite? Several reasons! 
  1. It makes us look good. Seriously, it's the ethical and responsible thing to do when using ideas or quotations from others.
  2. It helps us point our readers to our sources where they can more deeply engage with the scholarly conversation.
  3. It helps us to learn how to communicate formally within our discipline/major.

Organizing Your Research - Avoiding Plagiarism (Infographic)

Avoiding Plagiarism: What Do I Need to Cite? (Video Tutorial)

Check out this video from Kevin deLaplante to learn about plagiarism and borrowing both quotes and ideas (paraphrasing).

Major Citation Styles - Official and Credible Guidance

Official Style Manuals

There are many different types of academic and professional writing styles. The four guidebooks below represent some of the major ones. Use these guides to learn how professional researchers and writers prepare their manuscripts for publication or sharing.

Major Style Guides by Fields that Use Them -- Click the image to be taken to the book or eBook in our library collection.


Social Sciences Humanities & Social Sciences Some Sciences

MLA Handbook, 9th edition, book cover image

MLA Handbook

Cover Art

APA Manual

Cover Art

Chicago Manual

Cover Art

CSE Manual

Online Style Resources

Although these resources are not official, they are still credible and very useful! If one of these websites doesn't answer your question, check out the official style guide or contact a librarian for help!

UO Research Guide

This helpful guide from UO Libraries also provides some information on various citation styles.

Citing Primary Source Documents from an Archival Collection

Citing Archival Materials using Chicago Style

In the notes, first cite the specific archival record, followed by the date (day, month, year), identifier (box/folder/item number), name of collection, name and location of repository.

The following example uses the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition: 

[Author if known]. [Title of document], Coll. 335, Box [#], Folder [#], PCUN Records, University of Oregon Special Collections & University Archives, Eugene, OR.

Examples of Document Titles:
  • Letter from Ramón Ramírez to [RECIPIENT], 30 May 1987
  • Photograph of César Chávez, [date if known]
  • Poster for community event "La Raza Unity Dance," [no date]
  • Poster, "Stop Sweatshops in the Fields, Support Oregon Farmworkers, Boycott NORPAC Products."

Stop sweatshops poster from PCUN Records

Poster "Stop Sweatshops in the Fields, Support Oregon Farmworkers, Boycott NORPAC Products.Coll. 335, Box 10, Folder 2, PCUN Records, University of Oregon Special Collections & University Archives, Eugene, OR.

Bibliography with Chicago

Cite individual items when you've referenced only a single item from a collection.

[AUTHOR LAST NAME, AUTHOR FIRST NAME]. [DOCUMENT TITLE]. [YEAR]. [CALL/REFERENCE NO.], Box [#], Folder [#]. PCUN Records. University of Oregon Special Collections & University Archives, Eugene, OR.

If you reference multiple items from a collection, cite the collection as a whole: Collection name, reference code. Repository, location.

PCUN Records, Coll. 335. University of Oregon Special Collections & University Archives, Eugene, OR.

John Bauguess Photographs, Coll. 338. University of Oregon Special Collections & University Archives, Eugene, OR.

Thanks to Dalhousie University for allowing reuse of part of their guide on Archival Research.

Citing and Attributing Images in Presentations, etc.

A photo of someone holding a sign that says "Give Thanks".Photo by Simon Maage on Unsplash

Attribution statements give credit to the original creator(s) whenever you reuse or re-purpose their content. If someone reused your creative works would you want them to give you attribution?

What's the standard we use to give attribution?
As recommended by Creative Commons, this is an ideal attribution:

Cupcakes on a glass platter on a green table

“Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0

  1. What is the title? “Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco”
  2. Who is the creator/author? “tvol” – linked to their profile page
  3. What's the source? “Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” – linked to original Flickr page
  4. What license is used?? “CC BY 2.0” – linked to license deed

Citations vs. Attribution

The following table summarizes the differences between citations and attributions.

What's the difference between attribution and a citation?



Academic and legal purposes (plagiarism and copyright infringement).

Legal purposes (e.g., rules of Creative Commons licenses).

The rights of the copy (meaning copyright) are NOT shared with the general public by the copyright holder.

Copyright IS shared with the general public by the copyright holder by marking the work with an open-copyright license.

Protects an author who wants to refer to a restricted work by another author.

Author of an open work has given advanced permissions to use their work.

Used to quote or paraphrase a limited portion of a restricted work.

Used to quote (or paraphrase) all or a portion of an openly licensed work.

Can paraphrase, but cannot change work without permission.

Author has give advanced permission to change work.

Many citation styles are available: APA, Chicago, MLA.

Attribution statement styles are still emerging, but there are some defined best practices.

A reference list of cited resources are typically placed at the end of the book.

Attribution statements are found on the same page as the resource.

Step 5: Pause to Reflect on Your Process

Pause to Reflect

Process icon from Noun ProjectFirst of all, congratulations on making it this far! You may still have some loose ends to tie up, and that is OK. Take a moment to think back through your research process. Did you learn any helpful tips along the way? Are there new strategies that you can use for future projects or papers?

Do you still need more information? You can go back to previous steps at any time to revisit your research question or look for more or different sources of information.

If you think you missed something, please feel free to reach out to a Subject Librarian:

University of Oregon Libraries
1501 Kincaid Street Eugene, OR
T: (541) 346-3053
F: (541) 346-3485
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