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Getting Started with Research

A guide through the library research process. Contact a librarian for more!

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UO Libraries Citation Guide

Major Citation Styles - Official and Credible Guidance

Official Style Manuals

Humanities fields
Social Sciences fields
Humanities & Social Sciences fields
Some Sciences fields

Unofficial yet Credible Style Resources

Citation Management Tools

Citation managers help you collect, organize, cite, and share research. Click on the links below for guidance on using these tools.

Learning Opportunities

For help learning these tools, contact an expert listed on the tool's guide or sign up for one of our workshops:

Organizing Your Research - Avoiding Plagiarism

Avoiding plagiarism means ensuring you give proper credit to those whose ideas you are borrowing in your own work through citation. One great way to track where you get your ideas is to take good notes during your research process.

The best way to organize your research is to find a way that works for you! Here are some suggestions:

A table showing several options for organizing research

Notecards

Notecards icon from Noun Project

Spreadsheet

Noun project icon of spreadsheet

Research Journal

composition book icon from Noun Project

Reference/Citation Manager 

Quotation icon from Noun Project

ZoteroMendeleyEndNote, etc.

Whatever approach you choose, consider highlighting useful search words, subject headings, and keeping track of where you found your information sources in case you or another researcher needs to go back to verify the information you cite. 

Help with writing & editing your paper

Locating a Permalink for your Citations

Some citation styles require or suggest you include a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or web address in your bibliography. If you copy the URL from your browser bar, it may not work for other people, especially if your information source is in a library database. Instead, it is preferable to use the a permanent link or "permalink" in your citation so that others can find the resource, even if they are off campus or attend a different university. 

Library Subscription Databases
  • In EBSCO databases, look for the Permalink option under Tools in the right sidebar. Once you click on it, a new bar will appear in the middle of your screen with a link that you can copy and paste.

Screenshot of Ebsco Permalink

  • In ProQuest databases, click the Abstract/Details tab and look for the Document URL.

Screen shot of ProQuest permalink called 'Document URL'

LibrarySearch

The library's catalog and search tool has a Permalink feature:

Link to this Item in Library Search with Permalink option

Government Publications

Government websites and documents often have a permalink called a pURL (Pronounced like "pearl"). PURLs provide stable URLs to online Federal information.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A DOI is an alternative to a permalink. Your citation style may call for you to include just the DOI name (E.g: DOI: 10.5555/12345678), or the DOI URL (E.g.: "the full DOI" or https://doi.org/10.5555/12345678).

Learn more about persistent links for library resources.

Citation Management Workshops at UO Libraries

Noun Project Workshop iconUO Libraries offers Citation Management Workshops

Check for scheduled Citation Management Workshops at UO Libraries and sign up at the link below:

 

Read about all UO Libraries workshops:

If you prefer a one-on-one or small group consultation, contact a local expert on the Help page of this guide.

University of Oregon Libraries
1501 Kincaid Street Eugene, OR
97403-1299
T: (541) 346-3053
F: (541) 346-3485
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