This guide is intended as a general introduction to citing sources using the bibliographic style established by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more complete details, see the most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (REF KNIGHT BF 76.7 .P83). Note that the manual includes essential information on manuscript preparation (e.g., margins, use of the passive voice), creating figures and tables, and ethics.
The custom of citing references – that is, providing a record of the sources you have used for your research – is a form of professional honesty and courtesy that is based on a regard for the responsibilities that writers have to readers and to other writers to indicate when they have used someone else's ideas or words.
Citing sources also strengthens the authority of your work, by demonstrating that you have considered others' opinions and ideas in forming your own. In addition, it gives the the reader valuable information, indicating where he or she may go to get further information on that subject; for many researchers, the list of cited references at the end of a relevant article or book is the single most valuable item they can come across in their research.
Accuracy in citing references is highly regarded, and essential in helping others locate the materials you used in your research.
When citing a reference in text, it is recommended that you follow the author-date citation system. Each in-text citation should correspond to a source in the reference list. When paraphrasing an author or citing an entire work, you must include the name of the author and the year of publication. You may do this either as a citation in text by placing the publication date in parentheses when the author’s name is mentioned in the narrative, or parenthetically at the end of a sentence.
For example: Smith (2008) found that… OR: The study showed that… (Smith, 2008).
For example: According to Smith (2008), “Quotation from source” (p. 144)... OR: “Quotation from source” (Smith, 2008, p. 144)
|Citation Example||Type of Citation|
|Ramírez, C. Z., & Verkuyten, M. (2011). Values, media framing, and political tolerance for extremist groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 1583-1602. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00775.x||Journal article, 7 or fewer authors, continuous pagination.|
|Chafee, Z., Jr. (1962). Freedom of speech and press. In W. S. Dowden & T. N. Marsh (Eds.), The heritage of freedom: Essays on the rights of free men (pp. 140-156). New York, NY: Harper.||Chapter in an edited book.|
|Dennis, E. E., & Vanden Heuvel, J. (1991). Emerging voices: East European media in transition: A report of the Gannett Foundation Task Force on Press Freedom in Eastern Europe (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Gannett Foundation Media Center.||Book.|
|FCC ruling to stifle debate, critics say. (2003, June 13). The Buffalo News, p. C1.||Newspaper article, unsigned.|
|Foerstel, H. N. (Ed.). (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: An encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.||Encyclopedia or dictionary.|
|Freedom of the press: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, 92d Cong., 1 (1972).||Government hearing, whole hearing.|
|Cameron, J., Hooks, I., Kaysing, N., Hoffman, M., Hackett, S., Butler, L. L., & ... Crawford, S. M. (2011). Should P-16 physical education programs focus more on wellness and obesity prevention objectives and goals? JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(9), 12-18.||Journal article, more than 7 authors, pagination restarts with each issue, no doi available.|
|Terregino, C. A., & Saks, N. S. (2010). Creative group performances to assess core competencies in a first-year patient-centered medicine course. Medical Education Online, 15, Article ID 4879. doi:10.3402/meo.v15i0.4879.||Article retrieved from web site.|
|Jeffords, S., & Rabinovitz, L. (Eds.). (1994). Seeing through the media: The Persian Gulf war. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.||Edited book.|
|Paretsky, S. (2003, June 2). The new censorship. New Statesman, 759, 18-20.||Magazine article.|
|Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932).||ERIC Document.|
|Sanders, B. (Producer/Director). (1987). Making the news fit [Motion picture]. United States: Cinema Guild.||Film or video.|
Note: To cite an entire website, according to the latest APA style guide (6th edition), it is now sufficient to cite the web address (url) in parentheses at the end of sentence in your text in which mention of the website appears.